Wednesday, March 23, 2011

Yeast Beasts in Action Lab Investigation

Some of the things that I observed was that for the soda, nothing extreme happened, like
I thought it would. The pressure started out by only changing a range from .1 to .2, so it
was not major. But all of a sudden the pressure changed, and it went up about one. Towards
the end of the testing session, there were bubbles starting to form in the soda. Maybe from the
building pressure. For the stomach antacid, the mixture remained the same, it was foggy
hydrogen peroxide. After we completed the test, the mixture became very bubbly and it was
stirring around. There was also a little amount of foam clinging on the sides of the glass testing
tube. The pressure for this was 100.70.
The one with the greatest yeast activity and pressure was the Diet Coke soda, which had the pressure of 102.7. I think that the carbonation in the soda had something to do with the pressure. Also the carbon dioxide was released inside, and it was trying the find a way to escape. The test that had to slowest yeast activity and pressure was the slim milk. The skim milk pressure was 100.58. Milk has a pH around 6.4 to 6.8, so it is not actually neutral. The soft drink has a pH 3.0 or lower and the stomach antacid has increased pH in your stomach. I did some research on hydrogen peroxide. I found out that it was a oxidizer, that it commonly found in bleach. Bleach, on the pH scale, is one of the most basic, at 12.5. Pure hydrogen peroxide has a pH of 6.2, which will make it a weak acid. So, it really depends on what it is mixed with it. So the basic and the acid will have a different reaction than a acid and acid reaction/pressure.
Some things that I concluded from my results of the experiment was that there the reaction between acids and bases are different, but they can both create very similar pressures, because they were so close. Some of things that went wrong is the experiment was turning the Diet Coke test. After we had added the two drops of yeast, we shook the mixture, but we did not start the test right after. This could have released some of the carbon dioxide, that could contributed to the pressure. Another action was that we had to retest a test, because the data was not collecting any of the pressure.
What can you conclude from the results of your experiment?

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Conservation of Mass Lab Investigation

The combination of vinegar and baking soda will cause a very strong reaction. We did not need to shake up the solution in order for the reaction to occur. I researched the reaction between baking soda and vinegar. Baking soda is a pure chemical called sodium bicarbonate, which is the chemical formula of NaHCO3. Vinegar is a weak solution of acetic acid in water, approximately 5%. “The reaction between baking soda and vinegar is actually two reactions, an acid base reaction followed by a decomposition reaction. When the two ingredients are mixed, hydroge
n ions ( H+) from the vinegar react with the bicarbonate ions (HCO3- ) from the baking soda to form a new chemical called carbonic acid (H2CO3). The carbonic acid thus formed then immediately decomposes into carbon dioxide gas (CO2)and water (H2O). It's this carbon dioxide gas that can be seen bubbling and foaming as soon as you mix baking soda and vinegar together.”
Some of the observations I made were the Pop Rocks caused the soda to bubble, which caused the gas to be released. The balloon filled up a little, but it was not the reaction I was expecting. But once we shook the soda and Pop Rocks, the balloon started to fill fast. I also noticed that some of the Pop Rocks were sinking to the bottom, before the carbon dioxide was being released. It was mainly the larger chunks. For the vinegar and baking soda lab, there were bubbles forming in the liquid. The reaction started first away. There was no need to assist the “blowing up” of the balloon. A major difference from the different tests was the size of the balloon. Though we had to shake up the first one, the balloon was much larger than the one for the vinegar and baking soda.
A changing factor t
hat varied from lab table to table was the type of soda used. For my group, we used Coca Cola. After doing so research there are the amounts of carbonated water in the sodas we used today:

Sprite: 92.31%

Coke “Coca Cola”: 95.78%

Dr. Pepper: 96.17%
Because there are different levels, then the amount of carbon realized to create the gas, the ultimately lead to blowing up the balloon. The balloon was not filling up with gases, and thanks to Table 2, we discovered that if we shake the bottle gently, then the Pop Rocks will dissolve faster, which could realize the carbon dioxide. According to the manufactures of Pop Rocks, they contain sugar, lactose (milk sugar), corn syrup, and flavoring. All of the ingredients reach the boiling the point, and they are mixed with carbon dioxide gas under a 600 pound high pressure. I learned that the soda/Pop Rocks is actually not a chemical reaction, but a physical reaction. We had a few things wrong with our experiment. One of my group members accidentally brought in the wrong size empty bottle, only 16.9 FL oz. Some of the people in my group thought that it would be no big deal, but I said that the we needed to have the right size, because that could have been a huge difference. The balloons also there not the best quality. It was hard to put the Pop Rocks into the balloons. We there not able to put the whole package, like we there supposed to. I also tried to blow it up, it try to stretch out, so it could fit more inside, but it did not work. It also was difficult to stretch the balloon to fit it on the bottle opening, without spilling the Pop Rocks into the bottle. The balloons had a hard time filling up for the Pop Rock experiment.

Tuesday, March 15, 2011

Chemical Reactions and Heat Investigation

My hypothesis was correct. I had predicted that the heat would go the fastest, the room temperature went at a moderate rate, and the cold went had the slowest. The water molecules move faster at a higher temperatures, so they will bump the solute more often. When the water molecules hit, their polar ends attract to the solute's charged ends and they are pulled apart until completely diffused. There also is more space in between the molecules, so the solute can settle in there. Because there is more space, there is more room for the solute to expand and than dissolve. This is the opposite for cold, because the molecules move slower, so it does not dissolve as fast. The major difference between all three test trials, was manifestly the time it took to dissolve. The room temperature test took about 40 seconds to completely dissolve. The hot water test nearly cut this in half, so it was an outstanding 25 seconds. Finally, the cold water test took 1 minute and 55 seconds. Some of the similarities that I noticed between all three of the tests is that it reminded me of carbonated water/soda, because of the bubbles. Also the liquid became very cloudy, right after the tablet was dropped into the water. In every lab/experiment, there always is something that will skew the results. One of the things in our specific experiment would have to do with the temperature probe. In the time during the different sessions, the temperature probe did not have enough time to convert back to room temperature. We tried to weight it out as much as possible, but still was a few degrees off. In the end, this experiment was cool to see the reaction in different temperatures.

Friday, March 11, 2011

ChemThink: Chemical Reactions

  1. C H E M I C A L R E A C T I O NS T U T O R I A L Q U EST I ON S
  2. 1. Starting materials in a chemical reaction are called reactants.

    2. The ending materials in a chemical reaction are called products.

    3. The arrow indicates a chemical reaction

    4. All reactions have one thing in common: there is a chemical change.

    5. Chemical reactions always involve a rearrangement.

    6. In all reactions we still have all of the same atoms at the end that we had at the start.

    7. In every reaction there can never be any missing atoms or new atoms.

    8. Chemical reactions only rearrange the bonds in the atoms that are already there.

    9. Let’s represent a reaction on paper. For example, hydrogen gas (H2) reacts with oxygen gas (O2) to form water

    (H2O): H2 +O2 = H2O

    If we use only the atoms shown, we’d have two atoms of H, and one atom of O as reactants. This would make one molecule of H20, but we'd have no oxygen atoms left. However, this reaction only makes H20.

    Remember: reactions are not limited to 1 molecule each of reactants. We can use as many as we need to balance

    the chemical equation.

    A balanced chemical reaction shows:

    a) What atoms are present before (in the reactants) and after (in the products)

    b) How many of each reactant and product is present before and after.

    10. So to make H2O from oxygen gas and hydrogen gas, the balanced equation would be:

    2 H2 +2 O2 = 1 H20

    Which is the same as:

    # of atoms in Reactant


    # of atoms in Products







    11. This idea is called the Law of Conservation of Mass.

    12. There must be the same mass and the same number of atoms and after the reaction (in the products).

    13. What is the balanced equation for this reaction? before the reaction (in the reactants)

    2 Cu+ 1 O2 = 1 CuO

    14. In the unbalanced equation there are:


    Cu atoms 1

    O atoms 2


    Cu atoms 1

    O atoms 1

    15. To balance the equation, we have to add CuO molecules to the products, because this reaction doesn't make lone O atoms.

    16. When we added a molecule of CuO, now the number of O atoms is balanced but the number of Cu atoms don’t match. Now we have to add more two Cu atoms to the reactants.

    17. The balanced equation for this reaction is

    2 Cu + 2 O = 2 CuO

    This is the same thing as saying:


    # Cu atoms 2 = # Cu atoms 2

    # O atoms 2 = # O atoms 2


    # Cu atoms 2 = # Cu atoms 2

    # O atoms 2 = # O atoms 2

    18. What is the balanced equation for this reaction? (Use the table to keep track of the atoms on each side.)

    1 CH4 + 2 O2 = 2 H20 + 1 CO2

    # of atoms in Reactants


    # of atoms in the Products










    19. What is the balanced equation for this reaction? (Use the table to keep track of the atoms on each side.)

    1 N2 + 3 H2 = 2 NH3

    # of atoms in Reactants


    # of atoms in Products







    1. What is the balanced equation for this reaction? (Use the table to keep track of the atoms on each side.)

    2 KDIO3 -> 2 KCI + 3 O2

    1. pastedGraphic.pdf

    1. What is the balanced equation for this reaction? (Use the table to keep track of the atoms on each side.)

    4 Al + 3 O2 -> 2 Al2O3

    # of atoms in Reactants


    # of atoms in Products







    SU M M A R Y

    1) Chemical reactions always involve breaking bonds, making bonds, or both.

    2) The Law of Conservation of Mass says that the same atoms must be present before and after the reaction.

    3) To balance a chemical equation, you change the coefficients in front of each substance until there are the same number of each type of atom in both reactants and products.

Wednesday, March 9, 2011

Polymer Lab Group Investigation

We mixed glue, water, yellow food coloring, and ethanol. Then on the side, borax and the sodium silicate were combined. It is amazing how changing the order and ingredients could change the experiment all together. I mean, we used the similar amounts and the same ingredients, but they there ultimately added together, in the end. The result of our experiment looks like a cross between brains and scrambled eggs. I was not expecting this. I thought that by combining the two experiments, that it would be a fusion of the two end results: a hard core (for the sodium silicate experiment) and a “squishy” body (for the glue experiment.) I was shocked by the results of the lab. I thought that it was weird that the 75 mL of glue did not make the solution sticky, I thought it would. The borax did not dissolve all the way, which made the ending result feel grainy (we added 3 mL to start). I feel like we added too much.

The components and chemicals in the yellow food dye did not really effect the results, so to me, it was deemed unnecessary. It did however added to the effect that the solution looked like scrambled eggs. The solution mixture was very thin, and liquid based. I thought that by adding a tablespoon of Borax, that the solution would thicken. It did. We added another tablespoon (5 tablespoons total) because the solution was little a little runny. This was a little too much, because the borax would not dissolve. We stopped stirring, before the borax was able to. When we tried the rebound test, all the solution did was flop on the table. This happened for each of the trials, so the rebound was 0 cm. The first time we dropped it from 30 cm, there was a small explosion of borax and a small amount of ethanol.

We torn off a chunk, to see if maybe a smaller amount would at least get a rebound. It worked, but it only got to a few centimeters. We froze the smaller piece in a glass beaker, and with the larger one, we chilled it in the refrigerator. We removed the large solution 15 minutes after. There was a small round, but too small to be able to measure. I think that this was due to the heat the hands provide. One of the ways that heat escapes the body is through the hands, so the “chill” heated up. My fellow group members were playing with it in their hands, before the rebound test was completed. We took to the smaller piece out of the freezer, 20 minutes later. It had a surprising rebound, averaging 6-7 centimeters.

Thursday, March 3, 2011

Sodium Silicate Polymer Investigation

I was not expecting the results of today's lab. I did not think that the ending results would look like a "bouncy ball." A major difference between today's lab and Tuesday's lab was the procedures leading up to the conclusion. For example, when we began to stir the different solutions, the glue/borax solution took a longer time to become a solid and interfuse together. When we stirred up the sodium and ethyl alcohol, the results where instantaneous. Another difference was the overall look and feel of the solutions. Obviously with the glue, the solution was sticky and a pure white coloring. The sodium silicate solution, was transparent. If the glue solution had to be described in an everyday item, it would have to be marshmallow jet puff or taffy, because they have very similar looks and textures. If the sodium silicate had to be described, it would be a bouncy ball, because of the heights it got to, the sound, and the texture of it. Also, each experiment where manifestly used to create different polymers, using different ingredients. It is harder to shape the glue solution because, due to evaporation, the moisture inside the ball started to escape. When I started to roll it into a ball, there was a sudden realize of liquid, from the inside of the ball. The sodium/alcohol just needed a little water and some elbow grease and walla, it was a perfect circular ball. A more chemical difference is that sodium silicate bonds with four oxygen bonds, whereas silicon only binds with 2 carbon atoms. One of the similarities would be that the atoms of each chemical had to combine, in order to create the bond. If they did not combine, then there would be two layers of the solution: both different. The combining ultimately lead to the fusion to create the final ball. Another similarity is between silicon and carbon. Both carbon and silicon make four chemical bonds and can be branched out into four different directions to make a long chains. They both can combine with each other and other elements, in order to create many great elements.

Some problems that we encountered was that we were not a to see exactly 3 mL, because the graduated cylinder did not go all the way down to that. We just estimated by pouring the liquid a little under the 5mL cut off. We also did not use of the of the sodium silicate/alcohol mixture. This could effect the mass of the ball, when we dropped it to record the rebound. The extra weight could have changed the height. Gravity and weight go hand in hand. It is a myth that says heavier things fall faster, but it can cause the ball to bounce higher. For question 6, a major difference between the group's balls, would be the size of them. The size is basically saying that the mixture of the solution would make more of the material used to create the balls. The ball we made was smaller than other groups. Another thing is that people had a difficult time trying to put the ball together. Because they were drowning it in water, the solution could a broken down. Their hands could have removed solution from the ball. You could see how much liquid that came out of the ball by using a container. If you rolled the solution into a your hands, do it above the container, so that the extra fluids drip out, and you are able to measure the amount. Silicone has the potential of replacing plastic.

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

The Science of Addiction

Neurons have the responsibility of passing both chemical and electrical signals to the brain. There is no particular shape and size, there is a wide variety of shape and sizes that the neuron can take. Depending on the sizes or shapes, the neurons have special abilities, like controlling the muscles or storing memories. The brain is separated into different sections, and they each have different responsibilities and jobs. In the center of the brain, is the reward pathway, which controls the our feelings, reward, and behavior. The central pathway is important because it makes us feel good when we engage in behaviors that are necessary for our survival. These beneficial behaviors include eating, drinking and sex.

Not only does the reward pathway makes us feel good, it also connects important parts of the brain, and because of these connections, it lets the reward pathway to gather information about what is happening outside of the body. The five senses will gather information about the nearby surroundings and send signals to the brain. So if you see a donut, then signals will be sent to your brain that their is one in front of you. Your memory has to do with eating, as well. Once you consume the food, the part of your brain having to do with memory, telling your body that you just ate something. "The five senses let the brain know that the body is eating food and the stomach is filling up, special neurons in the reward pathway release the chemical dopamine. The release of dopamine gives you a little jolt of pleasure." The central reward pathway will try it make sure that you repeat the actions that make you feel good. How do it does this? Well, it connects the memory and behavior. "When the reward pathway signals the brain’s motor center, it strengthens the wiring for behaviors that help you achieve your reward."

Drugs Alter the Brain's Reward Pathway:

Drugs Alter the Brain’s Reward Pathway

Drugs have a massive influence on the body. Within seconds, drugs will alter the synapse of the brain. It will bypass the five senses and go right for the reward pathway in the brain. Because of this, the drugs will give you a sudden rush of pleasure. Drugs used as an abuse will dramatically change the brain, so the brain tries to adapt. One of the ways that the brain tries to adapt is by reducing the amount of dopamine receptors at the synapse. When the person taking the drug “goes down,” then they will need more of the drug because the brain has tried to adapt. This makes the person addicted to the drug being consumed. The drug user has less activity in the brain than a normal person. Why? Well, the brain reduces the amount of receptors. Meth, cocaine, and heroin are all show these same effects. The faster the drug reaches the brain, the more addicting it gets.

Alcohol: Alcohol contains ethyl alcohol is found in most liquor beverages. It is a depressant, which will make you calmer and drowsier. Though alcohol is legal, it poses the risk of being very addicting. Alcohol also causes loss of motor coordination, reasoning/decision making, balance, speech, and judgment. When alcohol is consumed in large amounts, it can cause vomiting, lack of control, nausea, loss of consciousness, and in severe cases, death.

Marijuana: Marijuana is the most common drug in the United States and it comes for the plant called Cannabis Sativa. It will cause peaceful and joyous emotions in the user, but as soon as the feeling passes, the user will become depressed and tired. Marijuana also causes impaired memory, attention span, coordinator, loss of balance, and slow reaction time.

Cocaine: Cocaine comes for the coca plant that will speed up brain activity and the nervous system. Cocaine causes more energy, loss of appetite, disturbance is heart rhythm, nausea, respiratory failure, strokes, seizures, and increased awareness. Cocaine is highly addictive. There are also severe side effects if the user stops taking cocaine.

Meth: Meth is a stimulant drug, that even taken in small amounts, can have strong effects on the brain and nervous system. Meth will cause mental alertness and increased energy. High amounts can cause the body temperature to increase and it may cause convulsions. Meth is extremely addictive and causes violent behavior, delusions, anxiety, insomnia, and paranoia.

Heroin: Heroin is the most widely abused opiate. Some opiates are used as a prescription to treat pain, but heroin is not. Heroin causes a rush of pleasure, followed by many hours of drowsiness. It may also cause nausea, vomiting, and severe itching. If you stop taking the drug, the side effects would be restlessness, muscle and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting, and cold flashing.

Nicotine: Nicotine is the addictive drug found in tobacco and it can produce a calming and soothing effect. Quitting is difficult and it can cause intense cravings, irritation, and sleep disturbances. Tobacco is responsible for at least 30% of all cancer deaths, including the 90% of lung cancer patients. It is responsible for the many cancers including mouth, throat, esophagus, stomach, bladder, and kidney. Heart attacks, strokes, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.

MDMA: It is a drug that will stimulate and cause hallucinogen. MDMA can produce both energizing effects and distortions in perception and time. The ecstasy tablets contain more than just MDMA, such as meth, caffeine, cough suppressant, and diet drugs. There are many side effects when taking MDMA, like chills, muscle cramping, teeth clenching, panic attacks, loss of consciousness, seizures, dehydration, hyperthermia, heart failure, kidney failure, and a reduction in mental abilities.

Inhalants: Inhalants are chemicals that get inhaled to get an immediate high. These chemicals are found in many household items found in aerosol sprays, cleaning fluids, glue, paint, paint thinner, gasoline, propane, nail polish remover, correction fluid, and marker pens. Inhalants will affect the brain with such intensity that permanent brain damage can be caused and sudden death.

Anabolic Steroids: They are similar to the substances in that are similar to male sex hormones. But because it help make muscles larger, it is abused by athletes and body builders. Steroids will increase the chance of heart attacks, strokes, and liver problems. Physical appearance is also altered, like hair loss and acne. Steroids are not that addicting, but they put people under pressure for self-appearance, competitions, and for others.

Dissociative Drugs: PCP is either in a liquid form or a powder form to marijuana and tobacco. When taking the drug, the user will feel disconnect from the reality, out of control, unpredictable or violent behavior, convulsion, coma, high fever, and death. Ketamine makes you feel a terrifying feelings and near-death experience. Most of the ketamine sold on the streets has stolen for veterinarian’s office, where it is used as an anesthetic. Cough medicine is safe in right amount of doses, but when it has higher doses and it has almost the side effects as PCP and ketamine.

GHB and Rohypnol: GHB is a depressant that is abused by party-goers because of its relaxing effects and by bodybuilders because it promotes muscle growth. At high doses, or mixed with other drugs, can cause seizers, loss of consciousness, coma, and death. Rohypnol is in the class of drugs that are used to treat anxiety disorders. In the United States, it is illegal, even as a prescription. When it is mixed with other depressants, rohypnol can very deadly. Because they both clear, tasteless, and odorless, people can slip the drug into someone else drink. This is a date rape drug because victims will be physically unable to resist an assault and they might not me able to remember what happens the next day.

Hallucinogens: Hallucinogens are drugs that will cause hallucinations, distortions, and perception of time and reality. There is a swing from one emotion to another. Users will or may see, hear, or feel things that are not there. Physical effects include dilated pupils, high body temperature, increased heart rate, blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleep derivation, dry mouth, and tremors.

There are many ways to inject drugs into the system. Some of the methods of injections include smoking, injection, ingestion, and intranasal. The environment and factors have to do with the fact on whether or not you consume drugs. Studies show that the faster the drug goes to the brain, the more addicting it will become. The fastest way to the brain is by smoking it, and the second fastest way is to inject it into the blood stream. The slowest way to the brain is through consumption, like drinking alcohol. Alcohol will take minutes, rather than seconds, to effects to kick in. Could there be a therapy hidden in the wild world of drugs? “Increased knowledge about drug delivery methods is providing new addiction therapies. It turns out that the slow delivery of a drug by ingestion or through the skin, produces a weaker longer-lasting effect. This temporarily stabilizes the brain and helps reduce the physical symptoms of withdrawal. And it's not addicting! So it's a safe and increasingly popular treatment option.” Because the brain continues to adapt (or try to) to the drug, areas outside of the reward system are affected. Areas like the judgement and memory will be physically changed, or hard wired. When on drugs, the brain activity slows, and there is not as much activity, compared to a normal brain.

Death because of drug use is typically caused by the overdoses of more than one drug. The Drug Abuse Warning Network states that, on average, 2.7 million drugs in fatal overdose cases. A deadly combination would be heroin and alcohol. Because they both suppress breathing, it is possible that the drug user will stop breathing. Which drug causes the most deaths in overdose? The answer is heroin. The majority of the deaths are caused by respiratory failure. Heroin causes GABA, which is basically slowing breathing to the point where you stop breathing. Alcohol is also very dangerous.

Alcohol causes the decrease of glutamate, which ultimately leads to loss of consciousness. It can also cause breathing to cease and slow down. The body tries to get rid of the consumed alcohol, by emptying the stomach. If the person is unconsciousness, and they vomit, they may inhale the vomit, which could effect their breathing and they could drown. Yes we all know there smoking can lead to: lung cancer and possibly death, but did you know that smoking can lead to a nicotine overdose. If the smoker is trying the quit, (using the nicotine gum and patches, while still smoking) they are actually putting in more nicotine in their body. If the nicotine levels get too high, then it can paralyze muscles that are used to control breathing or it can cause a heart attack. How do stimulants cause death? Well, they can cause brain damage, organ failure, overheating, and heart attacks. Cocaine is a stimulant. The most common way cocaine takes lives, is through heart attacks, hyperthermia, and brain damage. Even if you are taking small doses, you are still making yourself 24 times more likely to have a heart attack. Amphetamine increases the levels dopamine in your body and the hormone norepinephrine. This can also cause over-heating, heart attacks, and/or brain damage. For ecstasy, which is also known as the club drug, the most common way to die is overheating, because it is commonly taken in clubs, where it is hot and overcrowded.